MINERALS IN VIET
Minerals in Viet Nam are diversified. About 5000 deposits and
occurrences have been discovered, and about 60 types of minerals
have been investigated and explored. They are exposed in two parts:
- Potentiality of minerals in Viet Nam (floor); - Ore types and
geology of deposits (first stage).
List of pricious
Mining geological mineral
Compartment exhibiting minerals of Viet Nam
Iron and iron alloy ores
The iron ores of different origins have been discovered in many
places, such as Ha Tinh,
Thai Nguyen, Yen Bai and Cao Bang. It is worthy to pay attention to
the Thach Khe iron deposit situated on the coast
of Ha Tinh Province, having the reserves up to 550 mill. tons.
Drilling core of Thach
Khe iron ore
Manganese: The major part of deposits and occurrences of manganese
are situated in Cao Bang,
Tuyen Quang, Ha Giang, and some in other places, such as Lang
Bac Can and Quang Binh provinces.
Sample of manganese ore
Titanium: Almost all deposits, occurrences and placers of titanium
ores occur in Bac
Thai, Tuyen Quang provinces and on the coast of Bac Bo and Trung Bo.
Chrome: Apart from the two Bai Ang and Co
Dinh large-sized placer mines, there still are two primary ore
occurrences at Nui Nua and Lang Mun.
Sample of chromite ore from Co Dinh, Thanh Hoa Province
Nickel: Nickel ores occur in Son La.
Wolfram, molybdene, cobalt and some other black-metal ores have been
discovered, explored and exploited in many places.
Basic metal ores
Lead-zinc ores: Many deposits and occurrences of lead-zinc ores
occur in Cho Dien, Sin Ho, Tu Le, Bo Xinh, Lo Gam, Lang Hit, Ngan San, Dong Mo,
Quan Son, Phu Loi and My Duc.
Copper ores: The Sinh Quyen
copper deposit was discovered since the end of the 50? of the past
century and has been explored, evaluated on copper reserves together
with accompanied ores, such as gold, silver, rare earths, etc..
Sample of copper ores from Sinh Quyen,
Lao Cai Province
Antimony ores: This ore type occurs in West Bac
Bo, East Bac Bo and North Trung Bo with medium reserves.
Sample of antimonite ores from Hoa Phu, Tuyen Quang Province
Tin ores occur in Tam Dao,
Quy Hop and Lam Dong, where many places
have been mined.
Lead-zinc ores from Cho Dien, Bac Can Province;
Copper ores from Sinh Quyen,
Lao Cai Province;
Antimonite from Lang Vai, Tuyen Quang Province;
Tin ores from Tinh Tuc, Cao Bang Province;
Tin ores from Tam Dao,
Vinh Phuc Province;
Tin ores from Quy
Hop, Nghe An Province.
Sample of calamine from Cho Dien, Bac Can Province
Light metal ores
Aluminium ores: bauxite in Permian sediments occurring in Ha Giang,
Lang Son, Lo Son, Quy Chau and Quy Hop was explored formerly and
during the 60? of the past century. Series of areas of laterite-bauxite
ore weathered from Neogene basalts at Ban Tau (Dien Bien Province),
Dak Nong, Song Be, Bu Na, Bao Loc, Mang Den, Van Hoa, North Quang
Ngai were discovered.
Especially, laterite-bauxite from basalts on the Tay Nguyen Plateau
was explored, giving large reserves.
Sample of bauxite ore from Tap Na, Cao Bang Province
Precious metal ores
Gold has been investigated and discovered in many places of the
country. There are two groups of deposit types:
Group of true gold deposits: including 40 deposits, primary and
placer ore occurrences, which were investigated and evaluated, among
them some deposits were exploited.
Group of paragenetic gold deposits: including gold-bearing tin-ore
deposits (at Nui Phao, Na Deng,
Pia Oac and Da Thien, Da Lat). Besides, there still are the
mineralization types of gold-bismuth and gold-molybdene.
Gold from Binh Gia
Gold from Bồng
Mi?, Quảng Nam Province;
Gold from N??; Lạng Sơn Province;
Gold from S?g Hinh, Ph?? Province.
Phosphorite ores: This is the apatite ore type in metamorphic rocks
with the explored reserves of about 900 mill. tons and inferred
reserves of up to 2.5 bill. tons.
Sample of phosphorite ore from Lạng
Barite ores: About 40 deposits and occurrences have been discovered,
among them 2 deposits were explored, namely: L?g Cao (Bac Giang
Province) and Ao Sen (Tan Trao District, Tuyen Quang Province).
7 other deposits were prospected and evaluated, namely: Nam
Xe, Dong Pao (Lai Chau Province) Luc Ba (Thai Nguyen), Son Thanh (Nghe
An), Tan Yen (Bac Ninh) and Thuong Am (Tuyen Quang Province).
Sample of barite and rare earth ores
Cement limestone and dolomite have large reserves. Pottery clay,
kaolin clay, pyrophyllite, diatomite, bentonite and cherty sand,
etc. occur in many places.
Sample of gypsum from Laos
Asbestos from Suoi
Can, Hoa Binh Province;
Quartzite from Tan
Mai, Quang Ninh Province;
Apatite from Cam Duong,
Lao Cai Province;
Facing stone from North Viet Nam;
Facing stone from South Viet Nam;
Mineral resources of the Tan
area, Quang Ninh Province;
Graphite from L? Cai Province.
Sample of graphite from Lao Cai
Sample of apatite from Lao Cai
Anthracite of good quality occurs mainly in Quang Ninh, a part in Nong Son
(Quang Nam Province).
Fat coal occurs in Thai Nguyen, Quynh
Nhai (Lai Chau Province).
Sample of fat coal from Thai Nguyen
Brown coal is concentrated mainly in Na Duong,
Ha Noi Depression and many other places.
Peat occurs mainly in the Nam Bo
Plain, besides there still are scatteredly in Bac
and Trung Bo regions.
Oil shale has been found in Dong
Ho (Quang Ninh Province).
Oil and gas occur in the Red River, Phu Khanh, Cuu
Long, South Con Son, Vung May, Malaysia - Tho Chu, etc. basins and
in the Paracel and Spratly basin groups.
Known oil and gas mines (except the White Tiger Mine) are from
small- to medium-sized deposits, having many reservoir layers
(Oligocene and Miocene sandstone, Miocene limestone, pre-Tertiary
fissured bedrocks). The mines are being exploited are White Tiger,
Big Ursa, Dragon and Bunga-Kekwa.
Coal types in Viet Nam;
Coal from Cam Pha;
Oil and gas;
Oil and gas from the Cuu
Oil and gas from the Bac
Sample of oil in Viet Nam
Ores of radioactive and rare earth elements
Ores of radioactive and rare earth elements: Reserves of rare earths
have been determined in the Nam Xe, Dong Pao, Muong Hum and Yen Phu areas. Rare earths related to
alkaline intrusives in Lai Chau and Yen Bai provinces are of great
Sample of rare earths from Nậm
5.Precious and semiprecious stones
Deposits, occurrences and mineralizations of precious and
semiprecious stones occur mainly in Luc
Yen (Yen Bai Province), Quy Chau (Nghe An Province) and scatteredly
in some other places in North Việt Nam, namely: Xuan Le, Co Phuong,
Ba Be, and in South
Nam, namely: Tien Co, Da Ban.
Sample of ruby from Luc
Yen, Yen Bai Province
Precious stones: ruby, sapphire (particularly, diamond, emerald and
jadeite have only premises and preliminary signs).
Semiprecious stones: spinel, aquamarine (beryl), topaz, tourmaline,
zircon, peridote, opal-chalcedony, jadeite-like stone, amethyst and
Sample of opal
Pink quartz, dematoite, disthene, staurolite, agate, jasper,
amazonite, epidote, pyrophyllite, silicified wood, fluorite and
Samples of aquamarine, topaz and quartz
Decorative and fine-art stones from Dong Nai;
Jade from Dong
Lay, Ha Tinh Province;
Decorative stones from Cao Bang;
Precious stones of Viet Nam;
Coloured stone from An Phu
Coloured stones from the Song Lo Zone and adjacent areas;
Coloured stones from West Nghe
Nephrite and jadeite from Co Phuong,
Son La Province;
Precious stones from Luc
Yen, Yen Bai Province;
Precious stones from Dak
Ton, Dak Nong;
Precious stones from Song Ma Zone;
the territory of Việt Nam 24 main aquifers have been determined,
attributed two 3 main groundwater-bearing formations.
There are about 400 occurrences of thermal and mineral waters in the
country. 160 thermal springs exposed on the surface have been
registered, among them 70 springs have the temperature of 41-60?, 36
springs ? of 61-100?, the rest ? of 30-40?. There are sources having
the temperature up to over 100? discovered through boreholes. In the
Bo Plain, there are sources having the temperature of over 150-170?
lying in depth of 3000-4000 m.
samples of characteristic mineral water among hundreds occurrences
of mineral water in Viet
Nam are presented, such as Ba Vi, Vinh Hao, Kim Boi, etc. mineral